The announcement from the Department of Transport that all government funded electric vehicle home charge points must incorporate smart-charging will have a profound and positive impact on the path towards a net-zero emissions economy.Continue reading
Dagoberto Cedillos, Strategy & Innovation Lead at Open Energi
As Electric Vehicle (EV) uptake accelerates we’re starting to see a radical transformation in the way transportation influences the power system. Vehicle-to-X (V2X) technology, which can be used to discharge an EV battery back to the grid, or to power our homes and businesses, has a pivotal role to play.
By unlocking ‘storage on wheels’ V2X can bring down the cost of EV ownership; reducing the need for infrastructure upgrades and cost effectively integrating more renewable generation. Open Energi’s analysis suggests that by using vehicle batteries to optimise electricity demand against prices, EV owners could benefit from a new income stream in the region of £1,500 a year.
The UK currently has over 130,000 EVs on the road, and National Grid expects this to rise to over 10 million by 2030. Globally, BNEF forecasts 130 million EVs in the same timeframe. As 2019 gets underway, all the indicators suggest EV growth is well on its way to hitting these targets, breaking records month-on-month. The graph below shows how EV forecasts have increased year on year. It’s possible we will see a very visible step change in the mid-2020s, as EVs hit up-front cost parity with Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs).
Rising Consensus on EV adoption, source BNEF
Quantifying EV flexibility from smart charging
Last year Open Energi analysed the potential to manage EV electricity demand (one way) using smart charging. Taking National Grid’s 10 million by 2030 forecast, we identified some 12GW of flexibility which could turn EVs from a threat to grid stability to an asset that can benefit the grid, drivers and the environment alike.
Smart charging flexibility comes from the energy that can be shifted (e.g. moving a period of charge, or part of it, from one time to another) and is determined by the amount of energy a vehicle will require at a given charge.
An average vehicle in the UK drives 21 miles per day, which translates to 6-7kWh. It is also limited by the speed of charging, typically 3, 7 or 11kW for an EV charging at home or in the workplace. These scenarios offer the most smart charging potential because vehicles are parked and charging for longer periods, which makes their charging more interruptible.
There is no need for an expensive rapid charger outside your office or home if you are parked there for several hours. You will have ample time to charge your vehicle with a cheaper, slower charger.
Flexibility from EV charging with higher charging speeds is less interruptible, as it will tend to take place in situations where people want to charge quickly and continue with their journey, e.g. forecourt environments. These rapid charging scenarios will likely be complemented by stationary energy storage, which will help to reduce consumption during peak periods, manage local network constraints and provide grid services, as in the case of Open Energi’s project at South Mimms Motorway Services.
Open Energi’s 2017 analysis explored the potential to enable flexibility via smart charging. Turning our attention from smart charging to V2X provides food for thought. Instead of being limited by the amount of demand that can be shifted, V2X flexibility is defined by the amount of energy storage capacity in the vehicle battery (e.g. 40kWh for a Nissan Leaf) and its charge/discharge speed (3kW or 10kW based on current technology). This energy storage capacity could be used multiple times in a day, depending on its charging and discharging.
Conservatively assuming 5 million vehicles on the roads by 2030 – half of National Grid’s forecast – this translates to 200GWh of storage. Assuming they could charge/discharge at a low speed of 3kW, this equates to 15GW of capacity, enough to power 30 million homes! For comparison, National Grid’s most optimistic 2030 forecast of total (stationary) electricity storage capacity is 9GW.
Given the battery accounts for some 50% of the car’s cost it is important to consider battery lifecycle and how using it could impact the vehicle’s warranty. However, keep in mind that a vehicle driving the average 21 miles a day will use less than a fifth of its capacity each day (7kWh/40kWh). The graph below illustrates a typical UK home’s daily consumption, which is in the region of 2kWh over the evening peak (4-7pm).
Residential demand profile, source UKERC
Using V2X technology, an EV battery could discharge to the home during this time and already create substantial value by simply taking the household ‘off-grid’ when prices are at their highest. Adding this 2kWh to the 7kWh needed for driving gives a total daily throughput of 9kWh, or 22.5% of battery capacity.
The batteries Open Energi operates in our portfolio of distributed energy assets usually perform a full charge/discharge cycle per day and comply with warranty conditions, so there is potential to extract further value by increasing the utilisation of the vehicle battery. However, in the example of a household we need to evaluate if the spread between the export price during the peak and the import price when energy is recovered is positive to justify exporting to the grid. This is not necessarily the case for larger demand sites such as an Industrial or Commercial user.
Opportunity for large energy users
Sites with greater demand could shift even more energy, and discharge more vehicles at once, without having to export. Essentially, a fleet of commercial vehicles becomes a behind-the-meter energy storage asset for a site when drivers have finished their shifts, displacing site consumption during the peak and recharging the vehicle battery when prices fall. Open Energi’s analysis suggests that this kind of demand optimisation could be worth up to £1,500 per vehicle per year.
The main obstacle today is the price and availability of V2G chargers but this should quickly change. While V2G chargers are relatively difficult to procure at present, V2G compatible vehicles are already being sold at a similar price to comparable EV models. For example, Nissan’s electric van, the e-NV200, does not seem to have a premium for the feature – it comes already equipped with V2G compatible charging technology. As charging technology catches up, V2G will be a standard bundled feature of these vehicles.
Storage on wheels
Projects such as Powerloop, the first large-scale domestic V2G trial in the UK, aim to demonstrate the benefits of V2X in action. Backed by Innovate UK and bringing together a consortium including Open Energi, Octopus Energy, Octopus Electric Vehicles, UK Power Networks and ChargePoint Services, the 3-year, £7 million project will see 135 V2G chargers rolled out on the UK’s electricity grid. EV drivers will be able to access a special V2G bundle when leasing a V2G compatible car.
A two-way charger will enable the driver to charge their vehicle intelligently, using their vehicle battery to power their home during peak times or sell spare power back to the grid. The project will also focus on the role of EVs in delivering flexibility services to the local network. Open Energi’s Dynamic Demand 2.0 technology will aggregate the cars’ battery power to integrate domestic V2G into UK Power Networks’ flexibility services. Together, we aim to demonstrate the benefits of using EVs to support the grid and reduce costs for drivers.
It’s clear that V2X unlocks a huge opportunity for energy systems globally – with the potential to create a volume of ‘storage on wheels’ that will ultimately eclipse grid-scale and behind-the-meter batter storage many times over. Depending on how we shape regulation, develop technology and create new business models, this huge amount of flexible storage potential could be captured to lower the cost of car ownership, power our homes, and operate our electricity network more efficiently, whilst accelerating our transition to a net zero carbon future.
The National Infrastructure Commission (NIC) recently published its first National Infrastructure Assessment (NIA), setting out a strategy for the UK’s economic infrastructure from 2020 to 2050. A key focus is decarbonising the UK’s energy supply and the report recommends 50% of generation is supplied by renewable power by 2030, with the UK’s electricity supply almost entirely zero-carbon – thanks to nuclear and renewables – by 2050. But how can we integrate this level of renewables cost-effectively, and what do we do when the sun doesn’t shine, and the wind doesn’t blow? Wendel Hortop, Commercial Analyst at Open Energi, explores the role of flexibility in enabling the UK’s transition to a zero-carbon energy system.
What would such high levels of renewables mean for the energy system?
The UK is on track to power 50% of our electricity supply with renewable generation by 2030 but this level of renewables creates some very specific challenges. Solar and wind, which would form most of new renewable capacity, are highly inflexible – energy is only generated when the sun is shining, or wind is blowing. Despite increasingly accurate forecasting, this inflexibility introduces short-term (balancing electricity supply and demand within a given half-hour) and long-term (what to do when wind and/or solar output is low for hours or days at a time) challenges, and reduces the level of inertia on the grid, resulting in much quicker changes in system frequency – which must be managed to ensure power keeps flowing.
Flexibility can help to address these impacts cost-effectively – reducing total system spending by between £1-7bn per year – and enable the UK to integrate renewable generation at the scale required by the NIC assessment.
|Flexibility can deliver significant cost reductions in in a high renewable system|
What role does flexibility have to play?
The majority of system balancing occurs through the energy market in response to energy prices visible over different timescales, of which the last resort is the imbalance price. Energy generators and suppliers forecast their half-hourly energy usage and provide this to National Grid, who then take action to correct any differences between forecast and actual energy usage. Anyone out of balance in a way which harms the system pays a penalty, whilst the opposite is also true – putting yourself in imbalance to benefit the system gets rewarded. The imbalance price (or System Price) is not known until afterwards so predicting and reacting to it allows energy users to help the grid and be rewarded; increasingly trading teams at big suppliers are looking to their customers to help manage this.
Open Energi are already responding to the imbalance price by flexing loads through signals from suppliers, such as Ørsted’s Renewable Balancing Reserve. Increased renewable generation on the grid will increase the likelihood of system imbalances, and the incentive to respond.
|Flexible loads can respond in real-time to predicted system prices|
The wholesale market doesn’t balance all supply and demand so National Grid look to the suite of services they procure to do the rest. For example, frequency response services fine tune the system balance and provide a ‘first line of defence’ after large generation outages.
Demand flexibility is already an established tool in helping to balance frequency on the grid via the Firm Frequency Response market. Inertia levels falling means faster frequency response is needed. Lithium-ion batteries are perfect for delivering this, whilst some forms of demand flexibility can also respond at the required speed. National Grid is developing a Faster Acting Frequency Response product which will allow loads capable of responding quickly enough to participate and will procure a mix of assets capable of tracking frequency (such as batteries) and those capable of delivering large shifts in demand almost instantaneously (such as large industrial processes).
Longer term shortfalls in generation introduce a new challenge for flexibility
The more significant challenge is in longer periods of low wind and solar generation. Increased interconnection with Europe will help but demand flexibility can again play a key role.
Frequency response has tended to focus on energy flexibility within a half-hour period, however many processes have inherent energy storage of hours or even days. Water pumps, heating and CHPs are all assets which can shift demand over long periods. The signals to do so come from the market – low renewable generation leads to increased wholesale energy prices, and vice versa. As wholesale energy prices can be known a day ahead, a load can be optimised in advance to increase consumption when prices are lowest, and reduce consumption when prices are high.
|Many flexible processes have hours or even days of energy storage|
Advances in storage technology will also assist with this longer duration requirement for flexibility. Technologies such as vanadium flow batteries can provide over 4 hours of energy storage and can help balance sustained periods of low or high renewable generation as well as providing short-term frequency response and price arbitrage.
Aggregation of assets such as these, diverse in both location and technology, will help to tackle longer periods by spreading the requirement for flexibility. Digitalised platforms that use artificial intelligence (AI), statistics and probability can schedule and manage asset behaviour to deliver the optimal amount of flexible capacity.
As we look to 2030, increased adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) will also come into play, either through smart charging or vehicle-to-grid (V2G) charging. In their latest Future Energy Scenarios report National Grid predict we could have over 10 million electric vehicles in 2030, and over 35 million in 2040 – a huge number of flexible, distributed assets.
Smart charging will allow EV charging to be modulated or staggered to avoid surges in consumption or shifted to times of day when demand is low, reducing the infrastructure required to support them. Aurora Energy Research estimate that smart charging can reduce the level of generating capacity required in 2050 by up to 22GW in a high renewables system. Meanwhile V2G charging introduces possibilities such as taking households off-grid during peak periods – Open Energi are part of the PowerLoop consortium exploring this and other potential V2G applications.
|Smart charging significantly reduces the need for flexible generating capacity|
Decarbonisation of heat will introduce new sources of flexibility
One common process with very high levels of inherent storage is heating; however the UK’s reliance on gas means potential flexibility which could be offered to the electricity system is currently limited. Looking forward the decarbonisation of heat therefore offers long-term opportunities, whether this comes through electrification or a transition to hydrogen and district heating.
Switching to heat pumps would introduce a large but flexible energy load into the system with significant storage potential. Coupled with smart meters and other advances in technology this could lead to a highly distributed source of flexibility for the grid, just as with the shift to electric vehicles.
Hydrogen powered heating – produced via electrolysis – is an energy-intensive but flexible process, which alongside district heating networks would likely lead to many more CHPs – which offer short and long term flexible capacity.
Technology will play an important role in delivering this flexibility
The NIA shows that flexibility has a key role to play in delivering or surpassing our carbon targets. As renewable generation increases significantly so will the need for flexibility. We already have many of the solutions we need – the real challenge is rolling these out at the required scale and speed.
This is where AI and cloud computing can come into their own. Aggregation of larger and larger portfolios of diverse loads will require the behaviour of each of these individual loads to be optimised and controlled in real-time in response to the requirements of the system. Meanwhile the move to smaller, distributed loads, including those on a domestic scale such as electric vehicles, will rely heavily on cloud computing with dispatch instructions delivered over the internet and loads communicating their behaviour with the platform and each other.
Ultimately these solutions can give rise to an autonomous, self-balancing grid which operates incredibly cheaply. Open Energi are leading this transition, connecting, aggregating and optimising distributed energy resources in real-time, to create a more sustainable energy future.
Cenex-LCV is the UK’s premier low carbon vehicle event incorporating a seminar programme, technology exhibition, low carbon community networking and ride & drive of the latest research & development and commercially available vehicles.
LCV is run by Cenex, the UK’s first centre of excellence for low carbon and fuel cell technologies with assistance from Supporting Partners including the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, the Centre for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles, the Office for Low Emission Vehicles, the Department for International Trade, the Advanced Propulsion Centre, the Automotive Council, Innovate UK, the Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership, the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders, and Transport Systems Catapult.
Date: 12-13th September 2018
Location: Millbrook, Bedfordshire
Speaker: Robyn Lucas, Head of Data Science
Further information is available from the event website.
At South Mimms Motorway Services, Open Energi own and operate a 250kW/500kWh Powerpack alongside one of Tesla’s largest and busiest UK charging locations. The project, which is one of the first of its kind globally, was selected as a demand side flexibility success story and showcased by National Grid at their 2018 Power Responsive summer reception.
The Supercharger site can charge up to 12 cars at one time, and since popular charging periods often coincide with peak periods of grid demand – between 4pm and 7pm, when electricity prices are at their highest – flexible solutions are needed to ease the strain on local grids and control electricity costs.
Integrating a Powerpack at the location has meant that during peak periods, vehicles can charge from Powerpack instead of drawing power from the grid. Throughout the remainder of the day, the Powerpack system charges from and discharges to the grid, providing a Firm Frequency Response (FFR) service to National Grid and earning revenue for balancing grid electricity supply and demand on a second-by-second basis.
Combining batteries and electric vehicles makes vehicle charging part of the solution to integrating more renewables without affecting drivers, unlocking vital flexibility to help build a smarter, more sustainable system.
Robyn Lucas, Head of Data Science at Open Energi explained “[the battery] provides a source of flexibility to what is otherwise a very inflexible demand. We do frequency response for most of the time, and over the peak period we use the battery to charge the car up, rather than them charging from the grid.
“Open Energi hope to repeat this blueprint with multiple other stationary storage assets next to EV charging stations. Having stationary storage assets used in this way allows both transport and electricity networks to be decarbonised and allows for greater renewable penetration.”
Last week National Grid published its 2018 Future Energy Scenarios. Most notably, this year’s scenarios forecast there could be as many as 36 million electric vehicles (EVs) on UK roads by 2040, almost double the number suggested a year ago.
Accelerating EV uptake will increase overall electricity demand – with EVs accounting for 7.5% of total electricity demand by 2040 – but the impact of EVs can be managed and controlled thanks to smart charging and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology, which means EVs can be turned into a flexible asset which works for the benefit of the system.
The report recognises this – modelling the impact of V2G technology for the first time – and highlights the role of EVs in helping to manage peaks and troughs in demand and provide stored energy to support growing levels of renewable generation.
Open Energi have updated our modelling of EV flexibility to reflect National Grid’s latest forecasts. By 2030, with up to 11 million EVs on the road, our analysis suggests there could exist between 1.1–3.7GW of turn-up and between 2.5-8.5GW of turn-down flexibility to be unlocked from smart-charging. The available flexibility would change throughout the day depending on charging patterns and scenarios. In 2040, with 36 million EVs on the road, this rises to up to 12.6GW of turn-up and 29.7GW of turn-down flexibility respectively. Our current analysis does not include V2G so these calculations will eventually be higher depending on the level of V2G penetration achieved.
Open Energi is working to make these figures a reality.
We are part of the PowerLoop consortium, a 3-year, £7 million project backed by Innovate UK to develop the UK’s first large-scale domestic V2G trial. The consortium includes Octopus Energy, Octopus Electric Vehicles, UK Power Networks, ChargePoint Services, Energy Saving Trust and Navigant.
Open Energi is leading on developing a bespoke V2G aggregation platform and is working closely with UK Power Networks to integrate domestic V2G into their flexibility services. Together, we aim to demonstrate the benefits of using domestic V2G to support the grid and reduce costs for drivers.
In parallel, we’re working with businesses to develop EV charging and fleet management strategies that deliver valuable savings and income and support companies’ wider energy management and sustainability goals. Our Dynamic Demand 2.0 platform means EVs can be controlled and optimised alongside other energy assets – including on-site generation and storage – to ensure vehicles are charged and ready when needed, site constraints are managed, and value is maximised.
With the right technology in place, we can manage the impact of EVs on the electricity system, create the foundations for mass adoption and align sustainable energy and transport needs for the future.
For the full methodology behind our EV flexibility calculations, click here.
Dagoberto Cedillos, Strategy and Innovation Lead, Open Energi
Taking place on the 29th November, the EV Infrastructure Summit will focus on the opportunities and challenges involved in establishing a UK-wide charging infrastructure as part of the transition to zero emission vehicles.
The day will feature presentations and debates from leading industry experts and government representatives on the key topics involved in the roll-out of the required charging infrastructure.
Open Energi’s Commercial Director, David Hill, is joining a panel discussion on “Making EV’s a positive win for the energy system: opportunities and challenges”.
Date: 29th November 2018
Location: CCT Venues – Docklands, London
Speaker: David Hill, Commercial Director
Session: 12.40pm – “Making EV’s a positive win for the energy system: opportunities and challenges”
Further information is available from the event website.
Water company United Utilities is using artificial intelligence (AI) technology that is expected to help reduce electricity costs by 10% a year.
Around 8MW of pumps, motors and biogas engines across eight of the water firm’s sites will be connected to the technology provided by Open Energi over the next 12 months.
It will enable a flexible approach to energy management with continuous monitoring of power demand and generation across the sites to reduce costs and increase renewable self-generation.
The fully automated technology is expected to shift United Utilities’ demand so it consumes more when it is generating high levels of electricity and much less during expensive peak periods as well as responds to fluctuations on the grid.
Read the full article here.
As Electric Vehicle (EV) uptake accelerates and costs fall, more and more companies are exploring how to electrify their vehicle fleets and offer EV charging to employees and/or customers. Delivering sustainable transport solutions will cut carbon and improve air quality, but businesses need to think carefully about the impact on their electricity demand and how they manage EV charging as part of their wider energy strategy.
Dagoberto Cedillos, Strategy & Innovation Lead at Open Energi, explores five factors every business should consider, and how, with the right approach, EVs can be managed to deliver valuable savings and income.
1. Charging infrastructure
There are a large and growing number of EV models on the market with progressively faster charging speeds and bigger ranges. Charging set-ups differ across manufacturers, although two favoured options seem to be emerging; Type 1 and CHAdeMO or Type 2 and CCS (Zap Map offer a good overview of this).
In the UK Type 2 is by far the most commonly available chargepoint. Understanding fleet or workplace/customer charging requirements should inform what charging infrastructure is most appropriate, but of course fast or rapid connectors will have a larger impact in terms of electricity demand.
2. Connection size:
EVs can instantly draw a lot of power from the grid. Today’s rapid chargers typically charge at up to 50kW (although Tesla’s are faster), but newer models are expected to charge at 150kW and beyond. If you are offering fast/rapid charging and expect to have many vehicles charging at once, you may need to expand your connection size. A larger connection will cost more but will enable you to meet higher demand without exceeding your import limits – assuming the local electricity network has the capacity. An alternative approach is to stagger the timing of vehicle charging so that you avoid creating a surge in power demand (‘smart queuing’), enabling a smaller, less expensive connection. Similarly, if you have on-site renewable generation or energy storage, these can be used alongside EV charging to manage demand and make the most of clean, cheap electricity when it is available.
3. Charging patterns
It’s really important to think about expected charging patterns. If it’s your own fleet will they all be charging overnight only, weekdays versus weekends, or on a rolling 24/7 basis? Similarly for employees or customer charging facilities, will charging be condensed into working or opening hours or could the facilities be used more widely? The more flexibility you have to manage and spread EV charging the better, but you have to start by focusing on the requirements and expectations of the driver. A supermarket customer might only connect for twenty minutes but won’t want their charging interrupted. Someone at work could plug their vehicle in for eight hours or more, so probably won’t mind if you delay or interrupt their charging as long as their vehicle is charged and ready to go when they finish work. Smart queuing, which automates optimal queuing and charge dispatch of EVs can manage this process to support local network needs and ensure vehicle charging is prioritised in the appropriate order.
4. How many and where
If charging stations are dispersed in small numbers across multiple sites that will be much easier to manage and integrate with existing infrastructure than a large number all at one site. However, if your charging is concentrated in one place, this will make it easier to capture value from smart charging and EV flexibility. Local flexibility markets are emerging, and the ability to turn-down demand quickly and efficiently could provide a valuable service to local Distribution Network Operators. The business case for aggregating and delivering this kind of service from EVs becomes more compelling where there are economies of scale to be gained from connecting to many vehicles in one place.
5. Electricity bill
It’s important to assess the impact EVs will have on your electricity bill. Understanding this, and the nature of the tariff structure you have with your supplier, will help to identify where the opportunities for optimisation lie. Minimising charging during peak price periods and maximising charging when electricity is at its cheapest is an obvious first step, but the ability to manage the timing of EV charging also opens up potential revenue streams. For example, as renewable generation grows instances of negative pricing – when you get paid to consume electricity – are expected to occur more often. With the right technology in place, your EVs could respond to these price signals and get paid to charge your EV fleet. More generally, the ability to respond to fluctuations in electricity supply and demand and provide short-term balancing services – i.e. a few minutes – to the System Operator can be extremely valuable.
If you have any questions or would like to discuss your business’ EV charging strategy in more detail, please get in touch.
Last month saw the announcement of almost £30million in Government funding for V2G projects. Open Energi is part of a consortium which secured funding to develop the first large-scale domestic trial of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) charging in the UK, as part of a three-year, £7million project.
The consortium, named PowerLoop, comprises Open Energi, Octopus Energy, Octopus Electric Vehicles, UK Power Networks, ChargePoint Services, Energy Saving Trust and Navigant. Together, our objective is to roll out V2G charging technology to UK electric vehicle (EV) drivers in the next 12 months. Over the course of the three-year project we aim to demonstrate the benefits of using domestic V2G to support the grid, reduce costs and deliver a more sustainable future.
A total of 135 V2G chargers will be installed in a ‘cluster’ delivery model that will facilitate research into the impact of widespread EV rollout on the UK’s electricity grid. EV drivers will be able to access a special V2G bundle, Octopus PowerLoop, when leasing a V2G compatible car. A two-way charger will enable the driver to charge their vehicle intelligently, using their vehicle battery to power their home during peak times or sell spare power back to the grid. The project will also focus on the role of EVs in delivering flexibility services to the local network.
This smart charging approach means EVs can be managed to the benefit of the system, accelerating the transition to a sustainable energy future, supporting low carbon growth and creating value for the driver.
Recent analysis by Open Energi found that EVs could provide over 11GW of flexible capacity to the UK’s energy system by 2030, demonstrating their huge potential as a significant grid resource, able to provide flexibility to support renewable generation, balance electricity supply and demand and alleviate strain on the network at a local and national level.
The technological challenge is to drive down the cost of single phase, bi-directional chargers and to develop software that controls the charging of many thousands of batteries distributed around Britain, without impacting drivers.
Open Energi will lead on developing a bespoke V2G aggregation platform and will work alongside UK Power Networks towards integrating domestic V2G into their flexibility services. We will draw on our extensive experience of working with businesses to connect, aggregate and optimise industrial equipment, battery storage and generation assets on a second-by-second basis, for participation in Demand Side Response schemes. This includes a project at South Mimms Welcome Break Motorway services, on the outskirts of London, where we operate a Tesla Powerpack alongside one of Tesla’s largest and busiest UK charging locations.
By working with EV owners and the distribution network operator – UK Power Networks – the consortium will demonstrate the beneﬁts of using domestic EV batteries to provide grid ﬂexibility, cheaper transport and energy to homeowners, and help to accelerate the decarbonisation of the UK’s power and transport sectors.
By Dagoberto Cedillos, Strategy & Innovation Lead, Open Energi