Creating a sustainable energy future will take decades and the pace of technological development will lead to ideas and solutions that no one has even thought of yet. This innovation will come from the next generation of energy leaders, who are already conducting vital research at universities across the globe.
Over the last year, we’re delighted to have been supporting Yifu Ding, who is studying for an MSc in Sustainable Energy Futures at Imperial College. Yifu has been assessing the value of faster frequency response times in power systems, and Open Energi’s Dagoberto Cedillos has been one of her supervisors. Yifu’s project was recognized as the Best MSc Research Project in the cohort, and we’re pleased to share a post from Yifu about her work.
What is System Inertia?
In a stable power system operating with a fixed nominal frequency (50 Hz in the UK) electricity supplies must closely match loads on a continuous, second-by-second basis. This is especially difficult during some special cases such as the power pick-ups after big football games or a royal wedding.
Undoubtedly, achieving such a real-time balance is not a simple thing, but there are many approaches. Large power systems have an inherent property which provides the quickest response for contingencies. In a conventional power plant like coal, gas and even nuclear, electricity is generated by a turbine, basically a large spinning mass of metal. The inertia stored in these rotating turbines provides an energy store which automatically stabilises the system and insulates it from sudden shocks. In an event of a generation outage or surge in demand, inertial energy is released which prevents the frequency from falling. Equally the inverse happens in the case of a sharp increase in electricity supply or decrease in demand.
After that, the system operator begins to manipulate power assets through an array of automated measures already in place (like different frequency response products) and by sending out manual notifications. In response to these, large-scale power stations adjust their outputs. Hydroelectric reservoirs release or pump water. Aggregators control loads or battery assets they manage to provide a response.
Challenges for System Balancing
In light of the decarbonisation trend, great changes have been undertaken in the UK power system. Old methods relying on fossil-fueled power plants to balance the system are challenged and we need to explore new options.
As a rule of thumb, we are losing the system inertia. According to the National Grid System Operator Framework (SOF) 2016, approximately 70% of the UK system inertia is provided by thermal power plants. Unfortunately, the rapidly increasing volume of renewable generation units with power electronics interfaces, including solar PV and wind turbines, are not synchronized with the Grid. Therefore they don’t contribute to the system inertia.
In our research, we considered ‘Gone Green’ and ‘Steady State’ scenarios from National Grid Future Energy Scenarios (FES) 2017, to compare and contrast what could happen in the near-term future. We found out that the inertia of the UK system will fall from 198 GVAs in 2015 to 132 -155 GVAs by 2025, as large numbers of thermal power plants are closed to meet carbon reduction targets.
Why Faster Frequency Response?
From this point of view, our power system will become more ‘erratic’ than before due to lack of this self-stabilization property. To counter this we could use more Frequency Response (FR) services, or perhaps something else?
We can envisage a power system with a stable frequency as a large tank with a stable level of water. The current inlet and outlet represent the generation and demand respectively. If a sudden imbalance occurs between inlet and outlet, we need to respond quickly in case the water level becomes too low or overflows.
In this fashion, one of the effective solutions is delivering faster-acting response. In July 2016, National Grid launched and tendered a sub-second FR service called Enhanced Frequency Response (EFR). Currently it is provided by batteries which can respond fast enough to provide a similar level of security to the inertial response from conventional power generators.
Value of Enhanced Frequency Responses
A few statistics from our research and other documents give you an idea of the exact economic benefit from delivering this new FR service.
By developing an optimization mathematical model to simulate power generation, dispatch and balancing in a row, we estimated the economic benefits of EFR will reach £564 to £992 per kW by 2020. National Grid has already contracted 201 MW of EFR, therefore the total economic benefit is estimated to be up to £200 million. This result conforms to the estimation published by National Grid on 26 Aug 2016.
But this isn’t the whole story. Although the fast-acting FR service demonstrates many advantages, there are still obstacles when it comes to the implementation. For the system operator, an issue which might arise is how to determine the optimal mix of those FR products. Otherwise some of them could be undersubscribed or oversubscribed as mentioned in System Needs and Product Strategy (SNAP) report from National Grid.
Stakeholders in the balancing markets, such as electricity storage operators, can make themselves invaluable by providing such a service. However, we should note that it is designed to be fulfilled continuously, meaning it’s unlikely to be delivered in combination with other network services. In this case, the operator can only obtain the single revenue from the asset, risky from an investor perspective. Providing such a service is technically challenging since it requires a sophisticated state of charge (SoC) control to meet the service specifications and manage battery throughput.
As we look into the future balancing markets, fast-acting FR services indeed provide a cost-effective solution towards the low-carbon power system. Planned streamlining of procurement mechanisms and ongoing technology development will help to fully unlock its potential.